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Bigelow, H. J. Insensibility During Surgical Operations Produced by Inhalation. Boston Med. Surge J. 35: 309317 (1846).

Carmichael, E. B. Crawford Williamson Long-Discoverer of Surgical Anesthesia. J. Med. Ass. Ala. 36: 843857 (1967).

Cartwright, F. F. Humphry Davys Contribution to Anesthesia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 43: 571578 (1950).

-. The English Pioneers of Anesthesia (Beddoes, Davy and Hickman). Bristol: Wright, 1952.

Cole, F. Milestones in Anesthesia: Readings in the Development of Surgical Anesthesia, 16611940. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska, 1965.

Duncum, B. M. The Development of Inhalation Anesthesia. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1947.

Elliotson, J. Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations Without Pain in the Mesmeric State. London: H. Bailliere, 1843.

Ellis, E. S. Ancient Anodynes. London: Heinemann, 1946.

Ellis, R. H. The Introduction of Ether Anaesthesia to Great Britain. I: How the News Was Carried from Boston, Massachusetts, to Gower Street, London. Anaesthesia 31: 766777 (1976).

-. The Introduction of Ether Anaesthesia to Great Britain. 2: A Biographical Sketch of Dr. Francis Boott. Anaesthesia 32: 197208 (1977).

Esdaile, J. Mesmerism in India. London: Longman, Brown, Green &Longmans, 1846.

Faulconer, A., and Keys, E. Foundations of Anesthesiology. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1965.

Greene, N. M. A Consideration of Factors in the Discovery of Anesthesia and Their Effects on Its Development. Anesthesiology 35: 515522 (1971).

-. Anesthesia and the Development of Surgery. Anesth. Analg. 58: 512 (1979).

Hickman, H. H. A Letter on Suspended Animation Addressed to T. A. Knight, Esq. Ironbridge: W. Smith, 1824.

Jackson, C. T. Etherization of Animals and of Man. Trans. Am. Inst. City of N ~ for 1851, Albany, 167173, 1852.

Keys, T. E. The History of Surgical Anesthesia. New York: Henry Schuman, 1945.

-.The Early Pneumatic Chemists and Physicians-Their Influence on the Development of Surgical Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 30: 447462 (1969).

Long, C. W. An Account of the First Use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anesthetic in Surgical Operations. South. Med. Surg. 15: 705713 (1849).

Miller, A. H. The Origin of the Word Anesthesia. Boston Med. Surg. I 197: 12181222 (1927).

Morton, W. T. G. Remarks on the Proper Mode of Administering Sulfuric Ether by Inhalation. Boston: Dutton & Wentworth, 1847.

Nuland, S. B. The Origins of Anesthesia. Birmingham: Classics of Medicine Lib., 1983.

Raper, H. R. A Review of the Crawford W. Long Centennial Anniversary Celebration. I Am. Coll. Dent. 10: 137154 (1943).

-. Man Against Pain. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1945.

Robinson, V. Victory Over Pain: A History of Anesthesia. New York: Henry Schuman, 1946.

Rosen, G. Mesmerism and Surgery. I Hist. Med. 1: 527550 (1946).

Singer, C. Greek Biology and Greek Medicine. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1922.

Smith, W. D. A History of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen Anaesthesia: The Discovery of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen. Brit. J Anaesth. 44: 297304 (1972).

-. A History of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen Anaesthesia: Henry Hill Hickman in His Time. Brit. J Anaesth. 50: 51g530, 623627, 853861 (1978).

Stevenson, L. G. Suspended Animation in the History of Anesthesia. Bull. Hist. Med. 49: 482511 (1975).

Tallmadge, G. K. Some Anesthetics of Antiquity. J Hist. Med. 1: 515520 (1946).

Taylor, F. L. C. W. Long and Ether Anesthesia. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1928.

Viets, H. R. The Earliest Printed References in Newspapers and Journals to the First Public Demonstration of Ether Anesthesia in 1846. J. Hist. Med. 4: 14g169 (1949).

Warren, J. C. Inhalation of Ethereal Vapor for the Prevention of Pain in Surgical Operations. Boston Med. Surg. J. 35: 375379 (1846).

-. The Influence of Anesthesia on the Surgery of the Nineteenth Century. Trans. Am. Surg. Ass. 15: 125 (1897). (Boston: Merrymount Press, 1906.)

Welch, W. H. The Influence of Anesthesia Upon Medical Science. Boston Med. Surg. J. 135: 401403 (1896).

-. A Consideration of the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia. Boston Med. Surg. J 159: 599604 (1908).

Wells, H. A History of the Discovery of the Application of Nitrous Oxide Gas, Ether and Other Vapors to Surgical Operations. Hartford: J. Gaylord Wells, 1847.

Young, H. H. Crawford W. Long: The Pioneer in Ether Anesthesia. Bull. Hist. Med. 12: 191225 (1942).

Youngson, A. J. The Scientific Revolution in Victorian Medicine. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1979.

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