Israel is the only country whose diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were broken twice, each time on Soviet initiative, and were not renewed until 1991. Despite some tensions, nowadays Russia and Israel have embarked on the way of an unprecedented political and humanitarian rapprochement. The official visit paid by President Putin in Israel in 2005 marked a real breakthrough, for no Russian or Soviet leader ever arrived in the Jewish state for any kind of visit. Such factors as deterioration of Israel’s and Russia’s foreign relations, caused by Russian excessively tough policy in Chechnya and Georgia and Israeli not less tougher stance in Gaza and the West Bank, and increasing number of Russian-speaking politicians in the Israeli top-rank echelons combined to contribute to this rapprochement. Jerusalem provided unconditional support to Moscow in the problems of utmost importance for Russia: Israel cast no doubt on the decisive role of the Red Army in defeating the Nazism, refused to recognize the famine of 1930s in the Ukraine as “ethnic genocide” and finally handed over the Russian Orthodox mission building in Jerusalem to Russia. No Western country took such friendly steps towards Russia during several recent years, which predetermined a noticeable improvement in the bilateral relations. Abolition of visa system as well as growing by leaps and bounds influx of tourists are shining examples of warming bilateral relations. At the same time the fact of military cooperation between Moscow, Damascus and Teheran cannot be easily accepted or even tolerated by Israel. Nowadays Russia and Israel are keeping up confidential political and strategic dialogue that creates a friendly atmosphere and allows to the both countries to discuss all problems of mutual interest.