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Distributed operating systems

Distributed operating systems
Название: Distributed operating systems
Автор:Tanenbaum Andrew
Оценка: 4.1 из 5, проголосовало читателей - 378
Жанр: компьютерная литература
Описание:As distributed computer systems become more pervasive, so does the need for understanding how their operating systems are designed and implemented. Andrew S. Tanenbaum`s Distributed Operating Systems fulfills this need. Representing a revised and greatly expanded Part II of the best-selling Modern Operating Systems, it covers the material from the original book, including communication, synchronization, processes, and file systems, and adds new material on distributed shared memory, real-time distributed systems, fault-tolerant distributed systems, and ATM networks. It also contains four detailed case studies: Amoeba, Mach, Chorus, and OSF|DCE. Tanenbaum`s trademark writing provides readers with a thorough, concise treatment of distributed systems.
Издание:1994 г.
Содержание:

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  1. 1 Introduction to Distributed Systems
  2. 1.1. WHAT IS A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM?
  3. 1.2. GOALS
  4. 1.2.1. Advantages of Distributed Systems over Centralized Systems
  5. 1.2.2. Advantages of Distributed Systems over Independent PCs
  6. 1.2.3. Disadvantages of Distributed Systems
  7. 1.3. HARDWARE CONCEPTS
  8. 1.3.1. Bus-Based Multiprocessors
  9. 1.3.2. Switched Multiprocessors
  10. 1.3.3. Bus-Based Multicomputers
  11. 1.3.4. Switched Multicomputers
  12. 1.4. SOFTWARE CONCEPTS
  13. 1.4.1. Network Operating Systems
  14. 1.4.2. True Distributed Systems
  15. 1.4.3. Multiprocessor Timesharing Systems
  16. 1.5. DESIGN ISSUES
  17. 1.5.1.Transparency
  18. 1.5.2. Flexibility
  19. 1.5.3. Reliability
  20. 1.5.4. Performance
  21. 1.5.5. Scalability
  22. 1.6. SUMMARY
  23. PROBLEMS
  24. 2   Communication in Distributed Systems
  25. 2.1. LAYERED PROTOCOLS
  26. 2.1.1.The Physical Layer
  27. 2.1.2. The Data Link Layer
  28. 2.1.3.The Network Layer
  29. 2.1.4.The Transport Layer
  30. 2.1.5. The Session Layer
  31. 2.1.6. The Presentation Layer
  32. 2.1.7. The Application Layer
  33. 2.2. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE NETWORKS
  34. 2.2.1. What Is Asynchronous Transfer Mode?
  35. 2.2.2. The ATM Physical Layer
  36. 2.2.3. The ATM Layer
  37. 2.2.4. The ATM Adaptation Layer
  38. 2.2.5. ATM Switching
  39. 2.2.6. Some Implications of ATM for Distributed Systems
  40. 2.3. THE CLIENT-SERVER MODEL
  41. 2.3.1. Clients and Servers
  42. 2.3.2. An Example Client and Server
  43. 2.3.3. Addressing
  44. 2.3.4. Blocking versus Nonblocking Primitives
  45. 2.3.5. Buffered versus Unbuffered Primitives
  46. 2.3.6. Reliable versus Unreliable Primitives
  47. 2.3.7. Implementing the Client-Server Model
  48. 2.4. REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL
  49. 2.4.1. Basic RPC Operation
  50. 2.4.2. Parameter Passing
  51. 2.4.3. Dynamic Binding
  52. 2.4.4. RPC Semantics in the Presence of Failures
  53. Client Cannot Locate the Server
  54. Lost Request Messages
  55. Lost Reply messages
  56. Server Crashes
  57. Client Crashes
  58. 2.4.5. Implementation Issues
  59. RPC Protocols
  60. Acknowledgements
  61. Critical Path
  62. Copying
  63. Timer Management
  64. 2.4.6. Problem Areas
  65. 2.5. GROUP COMMUNICATION
  66. 2.5.1. Introduction to Group Communication
  67. 2.5.2. Design Issues
  68. Closed Groups versus Open Groups
  69. Peer Groups versus Hierarchical Groups
  70. Group Membership
  71. Group Addressing
  72. Send and Receive Primitives
  73. Atomicity
  74. Message Ordering
  75. Overlapping Groups
  76. Scalability
  77. 2.5.3. Group Communication in ISIS
  78. Communication Primitives in ISIS
  79. 2.6. SUMMARY
  80. PROBLEMS
  81. 3 Synchronization in Distributed Systems
  82. 3.1. CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION
  83. 3.1.1. Logical Clocks
  84. 3.1.2. Physical Clocks
  85. 3.1.3. Clock Synchronization Algorithms
  86. Cristians Algorithm
  87. The Berkeley Algorithm
  88. Averaging Algorithms
  89. Multiple External Time Sources
  90. 3.1.4. Use of Synchronized Clocks
  91. At-Most-Once Message Delivery
  92. Clock-Based Cache Consistency
  93. 3.2. MUTUAL EXCLUSION
  94. 3.2.1. A Centralized Algorithm
  95. 3.2.2. A Distributed Algorithm
  96. 3.2.3. A Token Ring Algorithm
  97. 3.2.4. A Comparison of the Three Algorithms
  98. 3.3. ELECTION ALGORITHMS
  99. 3.3.1. The Bully Algorithm
  100. 3.3.2. A Ring Algorithm
  101. 3.4. ATOMIC TRANSACTIONS
  102. 3.4.1. Introduction to Atomic Transactions
  103. 3.4.2. The Transaction Model
  104. Stable Storage
  105. Transaction Primitives
  106. Properties of Transactions
  107. Nested Transactions
  108. 3.4.3. Implementation
  109. Private Workspace
  110. Writeahead Log
  111. Two-Phase Commit Protocol
  112. 3.4.4. Concurrency Control
  113. Locking
  114. Optimistic Concurrency Control
  115. Timestamps
  116. 3.5. DEADLOCKS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
  117. 3.5.1. Distributed Deadlock Detection
  118. Centralized Deadlock Detection
  119. Distributed Deadlock Detection
  120. 3.5.2. Distributed Deadlock Prevention
  121. 3.6. SUMMARY
  122. PROBLEMS
  123. 4 Processes and Processors in Distributed Systems
  124. 4.1. THREADS
  125. 4.1.1. Introduction to Threads
  126. 4.1.2. Thread Usage
  127. 4.1.3. Design Issues for Threads Packages
  128. 4.1.4. Implementing a Threads Package
  129. Implementing Threads in User Space
  130. Implementing Threads in the Kernel
  131. Scheduler Activations
  132. 4.1.5. Threads and RPC
  133. 4.2. SYSTEM MODELS
  134. 4.2.1. The Workstation Model
  135. 4.2.2. Using Idle Workstations
  136. 4.2.3. The Processor Pool Model
  137. 4.2.4. A Hybrid Model
  138. 4.3. PROCESSOR ALLOCATION
  139. 4.3.1. Allocation Models
  140. 4.3.2. Design Issues for Processor Allocation Algorithms
  141. 4.3.3. Implementation Issues for Processor Allocation Algorithms
  142. 4.3.4. Example Processor Allocation Algorithms
  143. A Graph-Theoretic Deterministic Algorithm
  144. A Centralized Algorithm
  145. A Hierarchical Algorithm
  146. A Sender-Initiated Distributed Heuristic Algorithm
  147. A Receiver-Initiated Distributed Heuristic Algorithm
  148. A Bidding Algorithm
  149. 4.4. SCHEDULING IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
  150. 4.5. FAULT TOLERANCE
  151. 4.5.1. Component Faults
  152. 4.5.2. System Failures
  153. 4.5.3. Synchronous versus Asynchronous Systems
  154. 4.5.4. Use of Redundancy
  155. 4.5.5. Fault Tolerance Using Active Replication
  156. 4.5.6. Fault Tolerance Using Primary Backup
  157. 4.5.7. Agreement in Faulty Systems
  158. 4.6. REAL-TIME DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
  159. 4.6.1. What Is a Real-Time System?
  160. 4.6.2. Design Issues
  161. Clock Synchronization
  162. Event-Triggered versus Time-Triggered Systems
  163. Predictability
  164. Fault Tolerance
  165. Language Support
  166. 4.6.3. Real-Time Communication
  167. The Time-Triggered Protocol
  168. 4.6.4. Real-Time Scheduling
  169. Dynamic Scheduling
  170. Static Scheduling
  171. A Comparison of Dynamic versus Static Scheduling
  172. 4.7. SUMMARY
  173. PROBLEMS
  174. 5 Distributed File Systems
  175. 5.1. DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM DESIGN
  176. 5.1.1. The File Service Interface
  177. 5.1.2. The Directory Server Interface
  178. Naming Transparency
  179. Two-Level Naming
  180. 5.1.3. Semantics of File Sharing
  181. 5.2. DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
  182. 5.2.1. File Usage
  183. 5.2.2. System Structure
  184. 5.2.3. Caching
  185. Cache Consistency
  186. 5.2.4. Replication
  187. Update Protocols
  188. 5.2.5. An Example: Suns Network File System
  189. NFS Architecture
  190. NFS Protocols
  191. NFS Implementation
  192. 5.2.6. Lessons Learned
  193. 5.3. TRENDS IN DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEMS
  194. 5.3.1. New Hardware
  195. 5.3.2. Scalability
  196. 5.3.3. Wide Area Networking
  197. 5.3.4. Mobile Users
  198. 5.3.5. Fault Tolerance
  199. 5.3.6. Multimedia
  200. 5.4. SUMMARY
  201. PROBLEMS
  202. 6 Distributed Shared Memory
  203. 6.1. INTRODUCTION
  204. 6.2. WHAT IS SHARED MEMORY?
  205. 6.2.1. On-Chip Memory
  206. 6.2.2. Bus-Based Multiprocessors
  207. 6.2.3. Ring-Based Multiprocessors
  208. 6.2.4. Switched Multiprocessors
  209. Directories
  210. Caching
  211. Protocols
  212. 6.2.5. NUMA Multiprocessors
  213. Examples of NUMA Multiprocessors
  214. Properties of NUMA Multiprocessors
  215. NUMA Algorithms
  216. 6.2.6. Comparison of Shared Memory Systems
  217. 6.3. CONSISTENCY MODELS
  218. 6.3.1. Strict Consistency
  219. 6.3.2. Sequential Consistency
  220. 6.3.3. Causal Consistency
  221. 6.3.4. PRAM Consistency and Processor Consistency
  222. 6.3.5. Weak Consistency
  223. 6.3.6. Release Consistency
  224. 6.3.7. Entry Consistency
  225. 6.3.8. Summary of Consistency Models
  226. 6.4. PAGE-BASED DISTRIBUTED SHARED MEMORY
  227. 6.4.1. Basic Design
  228. 6.4.2. Replication
  229. 6.4.3. Granularity
  230. 6.4.4. Achieving Sequential Consistency
  231. 6.4.5. Finding the Owner
  232. 6.4.6. Finding the Copies
  233. 6.4.7. Page Replacement
  234. 6.4.8. Synchronization
  235. 6.5. SHARED-VARIABLE DISTRIBUTED SHARED MEMORY
  236. 6.5.1. Munin
  237. Release Consistency
  238. Multiple Protocols
  239. Directories
  240. Synchronization
  241. 6.5.2. Midway
  242. Entry Consistency
  243. Implementation
  244. 6.6. OBJECT-BASED DISTRIBUTED SHARED MEMORY
  245. 6.6.1. Objects
  246. 6.6.2. Linda
  247. Tuple Space
  248. Operations on Tuples
  249. Implementation of Linda
  250. 6.6.3. Orca
  251. The Orca Language
  252. Management of Shared Objects in Orca
  253. 6.7. COMPARISON
  254. 6.8. SUMMARY
  255. PROBLEMS
  256. 7 Case Study 1: Amoeba
  257. 7.1. INTRODUCTION TO AMOEBA
  258. 7.1.1. History of Amoeba
  259. 7.1.2. Research Goals
  260. 7.1.3. The Amoeba System Architecture
  261. 7.1.4. The Amoeba Microkernel
  262. 7.1.5. The Amoeba Servers
  263. 7.2. OBJECTS AND CAPABILITIES IN AMOEBA
  264. 7.2.1. Capabilities
  265. 7.2.2. Object Protection
  266. 7.2.3. Standard Operations
  267. 7.3. PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN AMOEBA
  268. 7.3.1. Processes
  269. 7.3.2. Threads
  270. 7.4. MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN AMOEBA
  271. 7.4.1. Segments
  272. 7.4.2. Mapped Segments
  273. 7.5. COMMUNICATION IN AMOEBA
  274. 7.5.1. Remote Procedure Call
  275. RPC Primitives
  276. 7.5.2. Group Communication in Amoeba
  277. The Amoeba Reliable Broadcast Protocol
  278. Fault-Tolerant Group Communication
  279. 7.5.3. The Fast Local Internet Protocol
  280. Protocol Requirements for Distributed Systems
  281. The FLIP Interface
  282. Operation of the FLIP Layer
  283. Locating Put-Ports
  284. FLIP over Wide-Area Networks
  285. 7.6. THE AMOEBA SERVERS
  286. 7.6.1. The Bullet Server
  287. The Bullet Server Interface
  288. Implementation of the Bullet Server
  289. 7.6.2. The Directory Server
  290. The Directory Server Interface
  291. Implementation of the Directory Server
  292. 7.6.3.The Replication Server
  293. 7.6.4.The Run Server
  294. 7.6.5. The Boot Server
  295. 7.6.6. The TCP/IP Server
  296. 7.6.7. Other Servers
  297. 7.7. SUMMARY
  298. PROBLEMS
  299. 8 Case Study 2: Mach
  300. 8.1. INTRODUCTION TO MACH
  301. 8.1.1. History of Mach
  302. 8.1.2. Goals of Mach
  303. 8.1.3. The Mach Microkernel
  304. 8.1.4. The Mach BSD UNIX Server
  305. 8.2. PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN MACH
  306. 8.2.1. Processes
  307. Process Management Primitives
  308. 8.2.2. Threads
  309. Implementation of C Threads in Mach
  310. 8.2.3. Scheduling
  311. 8.3. MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN MACH
  312. 8.3.1. Virtual Memory
  313. 8.3.2. Memory Sharing
  314. 8.3.3. External Memory Managers
  315. 8.3.4. Distributed Shared Memory in Mach
  316. 8.4. COMMUNICATION IN MACH
  317. 8.4.1. Ports
  318. Capabilities
  319. Primitives for Managing Ports
  320. 8.4.2. Sending and Receiving Messages
  321. Message Formats
  322. 8.4.3. The Network Message Server
  323. 8.5. UNIX EMULATION IN MACH
  324. 8.6. SUMMARY
  325. PROBLEMS
  326. 9 Case Study 3: Chorus
  327. 9.1. INTRODUCTION TO CHORUS
  328. 9.1.1. History of Chorus
  329. 9.1.2. Goals of Chorus
  330. 9.1.3. System Structure
  331. 9.1.4. Kernel Abstractions
  332. 9.1.5. Kernel Structure
  333. 9.1.6. The UNIX Subsystem
  334. 9.1.7. The Object-Oriented Subsystem
  335. 9.2. PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN CHORUS
  336. 9.2.1. Processes
  337. 9.2.2. Threads
  338. 9.2.3. Scheduling
  339. 9.2.4. Traps, Exceptions, and Interrupts
  340. 9.2.5. Kernel Calls for Process Management
  341. 9.3. MEMORY MANAGEMENT IN CHORUS
  342. 9.3.1. Regions and Segments
  343. 9.3.2. Mappers
  344. 9.3.3. Distributed Shared Memory
  345. 9.3.4. Kernel Calls for Memory Management
  346. 9.4. COMMUNICATON IN CHORUS
  347. 9.4.1.Messages
  348. 9.4.2.Ports
  349. 9.4.3. Communication Operations
  350. 9.4.4. Kernel Calls for Communication
  351. 9.5. UNIX EMULATION IN CHORUS
  352. 9.5.1. Structure of a UNIX Process
  353. 9.5.2. Extensions to UNIX
  354. 9.5.3. Implementation of UNIX on Chorus
  355. The Process Manager
  356. The Object Manager
  357. The Streams Manager
  358. The Interprocess Communication Manager
  359. Configurability
  360. Real-Time Applications
  361. 9.6. COOL: AN OBJECT-ORIENTED SUBSYSTEM
  362. 9.6.1. The COOL Architecture
  363. 9.6.2.The COOL Base Layer
  364. 9.6.3.The COOL Generic Runtime System
  365. 9.6.4.The Language Runtime System
  366. 9.6.5. Implementation of COOL
  367. 9.7. COMPARISON OF AMOEBA, MACH, AND CHORUS
  368. 9.7.1. Philosophy
  369. 9.7.2. Objects
  370. 9.7.3. Processes
  371. 9.7.4. Memory Model
  372. 9.7.5. Communication
  373. 9.7.6. Servers
  374. 9.8. SUMMARY
  375. PROBLEMS
  376. 10 Case Study 4: DCE
  377. 10.1. INTRODUCTION TO DCE
  378. 10.1.1. History of DCE
  379. 10.1.2. Goals of DCE
  380. 10.1.3. DCE Components
  381. 10.1.4. Cells
  382. 10.2. THREADS
  383. 10.2.1. Introduction to DCE Threads
  384. 10.2.2. Scheduling
  385. 10.2.3. Synchronization
  386. 10.2.4. Thread Calls
  387. 10.3. REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL
  388. 10.3.1. Goals of DCE RPC
  389. 10.3.2. Writing a Client and a Server
  390. 10.3.3. Binding a Client to a Server
  391. 10.3.4. Performing an RPC
  392. 10.4. TIME SERVICE
  393. 10.4.1. DTS Time Model
  394. 10.4.2. DTS Implementation
  395. 10.5. DIRECTORY SERVICE
  396. 10.5.1. Names
  397. 10.5.2. The Cell Directory Service
  398. 10.5.3. The Global Directory Service
  399. 10.6. SECURITY SERVICE
  400. 10.6.1. Security Model
  401. 10.6.2. Security Components
  402. 10.6.3. Tickets and Authenticators
  403. 10.6.4. Authenticated RPC
  404. 10.6.5. ACLs
  405. 10.7. DISTRIBUTED FILE SYSTEM
  406. 10.7.1. DFS Interface
  407. 10.7.2. DFS Components in the Server Kernel
  408. 10.7.3. DFS Components in the Client Kernel
  409. 10.7.4. DFS Components in User Space
  410. 10.8. SUMMARY
  411. PROBLEMS
  412. Примечания


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Оценка 5 из 5 звёзд от kshitij 18.02.2017 08:53  

many many thanks

Оценка 5 из 5 звёзд от sanjida 09.06.2016 18:31  

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